northridge earthquake 1993

Northridge Earthquake. Angel Stadium of Anaheim (then known as Anaheim Stadium) suffered some damage when the scoreboard fell into the seats. [48] The Fine Arts Building and the South Library experienced internal structural damage, resulting in the demolition and replacement of both buildings. But when the Northridge earthquake hit one month later, Engelhardt’s theory proved right. Although the vast majority of homes in the area, with the exception of a few particular neighborhoods, were relatively unaffected; many feared an aftershock to rival or exceed the severity of the first one. Urban Search and Rescue Teams and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams were important elements in the response to the Northridge earthquake. The seismic event led to millions of dollars worth damage resulting in a sharp drop in student enrollment. SELIGSON [20][21] Some counts factor in related events such as a man's suicide possibly inspired by the loss of his business in the disaster. [citation needed] The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and now-gone Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena suffered minor damage. The earthquake is the most costly disaster in U.S. history, in terms of dollar loss; costs continue to rise as more damage is uncovered, repairs are made, and disaster‐related claims are paid out. [22] Not only were they unable to serve their local neighborhoods, but they also had to transfer out their inpatient populations, which further increased the burden on nearby hospitals that were still operational. The game scheduled against the Sacramento Kings was postponed, the game against the Cleveland Cavaliers was relocated to The Forum (then the home arena of the Los Angeles Lakers), and the game against the New York Knicks was moved to the Arrowhead Pond (now Honda Center) in Anaheim. All of the earthquake sequences in the Wes Craven film New Nightmare were filmed a month prior to the Northridge quake. They suffered more damage from this earthquake than any other since the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Global Positioning System measurements across the Ventura basin, 30 km northwest . The campus was unable to use any of its classrooms because of the damage the buildings sustained. Northridge Earthquake 20th Anniversary, January 17, 2014 Audio Description: https://www.dot.ca.gov/AD/Northridge Earthquake January 17, 1994 Text The Northridge earthquake sequence consists of over 10,000 aftershocks (Hauksson et al., 1994); two of which had Mw6.0 estimates (Dreger, 1994; Thio and Kanamori, 1996). The Northridge Earthquake: Vulnerability and Disaster Robert Bolin. [11] The death toll was 57, with more than 8,700 injured. 11,846 injured. Over 12,500 after shocks, ten of which were over 5.0 on the Richter scale. The Los Angeles Unified School District closed local schools throughout the area, which reopened one week later. 700,000 claims filed with F.E.M.A. The quake had a duration of approximately 10–20 seconds, and its peak ground acceleration of 1.82 g0 (17.8 m/s2)[7][8] was the highest ever instrumentally recorded in an urban area in North America. Los Angeles' radio and television stations were knocked off the air, but resumed coverage later. "Fatal and hospitalized injuries resulting from the 1994 Northridge earthquake", https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-iris-adrian-1440804.html, "25 Years Later: The Desperate Search for Survivors at Northridge Meadows Apartments", "Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology", "Interchange Named for Officer Who Died in Quake", "Earthquake: Disaster Before Dawn: Scoreboard Crashes Onto Seats in Anaheim Stadium: Collapse: The 17.5-ton Sony 'Jumbotron' also destroyed a section of roof as it broke loose and fell to the left-field upper deck", "Comments for the Significant Earthquake", "Dangerous L.A. apartment buildings most at risk in an earthquake are quickly being fixed", "Earthquake: The Long Road Back: Hospitals Strained to the Limit by Injured: Medical care: Doctors treat quake victims in parking lots. In all, eight Southern California freeways were damaged, including the Highway 14 and Interstate 5 interchange. Eng. Northridge earthquake A home in Pacific Palisades that fell down the side of a hill above Pacific Coast Highway is seen on January 21, 1994. Since the the NEHRP's induction, the California Department of Conservation has installed seismic hazard mapping and zoning graphs. The Northridge earthquake on January 17, 1993 was 6.7 on the Richter scale. broid systematics because it provides a phy-logenetic signal over an issue where mor-phologyis equivocal duetohomoplasy. CrossRef Google Scholar PubMed NBC's The Tonight Show, hosted by Jay Leno, took place in the NBC Studios in Burbank, close to the epicenter of the quake. A total of 58 … [31] As expected, unreinforced masonry buildings and houses on steep slopes suffered damage. Wiley Online Library. earthquake to date. The campus still opened and provided students with mobile classrooms and mobile offices. Earthquake Northridge California 1994 . Strong ground motion was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nevada, about 220 miles (350 km) from the epicenter. More than 8,700 were injured including 1,600 who required hospitalization. An estimated $350 million (equivalent to $600 million today) was used to supply the number of trailers and domes which housed classes and administration offices. [27] The theme parks Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm and Six Flags Magic Mountain were shut down after the quake, but only for inspections since all were designed with earthquakes in mind. The Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Profit and Loss" was being filmed at the time, and actors Armin Shimerman and Edward Wiley left the Paramount Pictures lot in full Ferengi and Cardassian makeup, respectively. Dormitory staircases at Cal State Northridge, damaged by the 1994 earthquake. The peak ground velocity at the Rinaldi Receiving Station was 183 centimetres per second (4.1 mph; 6.6 km/h),[10] the fastest ever recorded. The United States Postal Service suspended all mail service throughout the Los Angeles area for several days. A Quake!" It presents an opportunity to examine a significant number of such buildings affected to various degrees by severe ground shaking, to document actual damage in depth, and to dispel the myths about the [33], Eleven hospitals suffered structural damage and were damaged or rendered unusable. January 17, 1994 - California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) January 17, 1994 ... California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) January 10, 1994 - California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) September 1, 1993 - Pickup truck being taken off an cargo airplane. This was the first report of such an outbreak following an earthquake, and it is believed that the spores were carried in large clouds of dust created by seismically triggered landslides. That is the view of Don Kramer, chairman and CEO of ILS Capital Management, who says that the London market had looked at the nascent Bermuda catastrophe market and regarded it as being one big loss away from disappearing. Damage to the system resulted in water pressure dropping to zero in some areas; this predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires. Total daily deaths in Los Angeles County for January 1992, 1993 and 1994, showing an increase on January 17, 1994—the day of the NEQ. The daily commute for many drivers in the weeks following was significantly lengthened, notably for those traveling between Santa Clarita and Los Angeles, and commuters on I-10 traveling to and from the Westside. . 30, No. The Northridge earthquake had no immediate foreshocks. The post-Northridge conference was modeled on this earlier effort and provided an opportunity to talk about short-term earthquake recovery efforts while highlight longer-term economic development programs and plans put into motion in 1993. The recording venues Capitol Records and Warner Bros. Records were shut down at the time of the quake. In the three years that followed Northridge, more than 681,000 residents applied for assistance from federal and state governments — making the earthquake both a devastating natural and economic disaster. The third major earthquake to occur in the state in 23 years (after the 1971 San Fernando Valley and 1989 San Francisco–Oakland earthquakes), the Sheffi, Y. [23], Sixteen people were killed as a result of the collapse of the Northridge Meadows apartment complex. The Northridge earthquake was notable for hitting almost the same exact area as the Mw 6.6 San Fernando (Sylmar) earthquake. The Northridge earthquake led to a number of legislative changes. California State University-Northridge was grievously damaged. The most notable was to the Santa Monica Freeway, Interstate 10, known as the busiest freeway in the United States, congesting nearby surface roads for three months while the freeway was repaired. 185 mobile homes burned from gas fires. In addition, property damage was estimated to be $13–50 billion (equivalent to $22–86 billion in 2014),[12] making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history. Damage to wood-frame apartment houses was widespread in the San Fernando Valley and Santa Monica areas, especially to structures with soft first floor or lower-level parking garages. The first and second episodes of the fifth season of Baywatch featured the earthquake, and how the lifeguards responded to it, professionally and personally. ... Broadband analysis of the 21 September, 1993 Klamath Falls Earthquake Sequence, Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/95GL00566, 22, 8, (997-1000), (2012). Figure 1. Michoachan earthquake [Aki, 1993], which contributed to the collapse of more than 300 buildings [Celebi et al., 1987]. This book provides a global view of the social effects of disaster in developed and developing countries. The airport was reopened in stages after the quake. Moderate damage to the built environment was widespread; severe damage included collapsed buildings and highway overpasses. Structural damage was reported to more than 12,000 homes, businesses, schools and hospitals, leaving many people homeless for extended periods. The quake produced unusually strong ground accelerations in the range of 1.0 g. Damage was also caused by fire and landslides. Wald, D. J., and T. H. Heaton (1994b). Das Northridge-Erdbeben ereignete sich am 17.Januar 1994 um 4:30 Uhr Ortszeit (12:30 UTC) in Reseda in der Nähe der Stadt Los Angeles.Das Erdbeben hatte eine hohe Magnitude von 6,7 M w und erreichte auf der Mercalliskala die Stufe IX (zerstörerisch). Unable to see in the dark that a freeway interchange just ahead had collapsed, the officer plunged 30 feet to his death. However, this earthquake also provided a rare opportunity for understanding and assessing the damage that can occur as a result of … actions be deemed cost-effective before they are funded e.g., Clinton 1993, 1994; U.S. Department of Transportation n.d. . The Historic Egyptian Theater in Hollywood was red-tagged and closed as was the Capital Theater in Glendale due to structural damage. In 1993, the year before the Northridge quake, shocks in that range numbered 141 worldwide. 1175 November 1, 1997:1174–80 EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE ON CARDIAC DEATH Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3, 2013) 5. Similar measurements across the Los Angeles basin indicate shortening rates of 5-10 mmlyr [Feigl et al., 1993]. In particular, buildings with an unstable first floor (such as those with parking areas on the bottom) performed poorly. The Northridge earthquake is part of the temporal increase in earthquake activity in the Los Angeles area since 1970. Many classes were moved to temporary structures. The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994, killed 57 people and injured an estimated 10,000 persons. Tendays before the event, a swarm of small earth-quakes (including … 556 K. PORTER, K. SHOAF, AND H.A. [29] Numerous fires were also caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. Urban Transportation Networks-Equilibrium Analysis with Mathematical Look back at KNBCʼs coverage of the the 1994 Northridge earthquake. [45] The damage caused a shutdown of the campus and delayed the start of the 1994 Spring semester. In Valencia, the California Institute of the Arts experienced heavy damage, with classes relocated to a nearby Lockheed test facility for the remainder of 1994. “The Economic Impact of Electricity Lifeline Disruptions Stemming from the Northridge Earthquake,” Final Report to the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Environmental, and Mineral Economics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Google Scholar. Objective: The 1994 earthquake that struck Northridge, California, led to the closure of the Veterans Health Administration Medical Center at Sepulveda. Geological Survey and Southern California Earthquake Center: The magnitude 6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake of 17 January 1994. Although those devices are important in compiling information for building structurally sound architecture, scientists are still not able to predict an earthquake. Some 600 accelerographs, similar to the "black box" recording devices on airplanes, also have been added to further help determine what kind of force buildings, bridges and other structures sustain in a quake. Amtrak ceased service in the Pasadena Subdivision following structural damage to a rail bridge in Arcadia and redirected all rail traffic through Riverside and Fullerton. The city of Santa Monica suffered significant damage. After the shaking earth had already demolished many parts of Southern California, a Los Angeles Police officer was unaware of disaster to come while riding his motorcycle to work from his home in Lancaster, north of the quake's epicenter. 2013 SCEC Community Fault Model showing newly mapped blind thrust faults (red) and the Northridge fault (yellow) (Provided by Plesch et al. [citation needed] Mark & Brian's morning show on KLOS was also affected. Occurring 16.5 miles northwest of Los Angeles, the height of the Northridge quake activity was just 11.8 miles below the Earth's crust, making sitting ducks of one of the nation's largest populations. [42] Metrolink leased equipment from Amtrak, San Francisco's Caltrain and Toronto, Canada's GO Transit to handle the sudden onslaught of passengers. Following the Northridge earthquake, the USGS has utilized the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) funding to pursue post-earthquake investigations designed to understand the damaging effects of the earthquake. The magnitude 6.7 Northridge Earthquake occurred on January 17, 1994 at 4:31 AM, killing more than 60, injuring more than 9,000, and causing widespread damage … The cast and crew had initially thought that the scenes that were filmed before the real quake struck were a bit overdone, but upon viewing the footage after the earthquake, they were reportedly startled by the realism of it. The Oviatt Library experienced both interior and exterior damage, but the overall frame of the central part of the building remained stable, allowing student use to continue. [46] In addition, the newly completed student parking structure C collapsed, and had to be demolished. Other local television stations, including KTLA, KCAL-TV, KCBS-TV and KABC-TV, were also knocked off the air. [47] In the Science Complex, Building #1 and #2 suffered fire damage while the bridges connecting buildings #3 #4 were closed and named unstable. He likely did not realize until too late in the early morning darkness that the elevated roadway had collapsed. Rail service was briefly interrupted, with full Amtrak and expanded Metrolink service resuming in stages in the days after the quake. The 1994 Northridge earthquake was a magnitude of 6.7 (Mw), blind thrust earthquake which occurred on January 17 at 4:30:55 a.m. PST in the San Fernando Valley region of the County of Los Angeles. These data will be reviewed here with Can. JACC Vol. UCLA and other local universities were also shut down. [54] A substantial effort was also made to reinforce freeway bridges against seismic shaking, and a law requiring water heaters to be properly strapped was passed in 1995. Some people even made temporary relocations closer to their jobs while their homes or neighborhoods were being rebuilt. The long-term (1978 to 1993) background seismicity in the The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994, killed 57 people and injured an estimated 10,000 persons. Some structures were not red-tagged until months later because the damage was not immediately evident. Losses were estimated at $20 billion. [30] In the San Fernando Valley, several underground gas and water lines were severed, resulting in some streets experiencing simultaneous fires and floods. The Archdiocese of Los Angeles's Cathedral of St. Vibiana suffered severe damage and canceled activities until a new cathedral was built in 2002. Many multifamily apartment buildings in Santa Monica were yellow-tagged and red-tagged. The high accelerations, both vertical and horizontal, lifted structures off their foundations and shifted walls — laterally triggering major fires. [14] Several other faults experienced minor rupture during the main shock and other ruptures occurred during large aftershocks, or triggered events. The Martin Luther King Jr. [clarification needed] Also, ABC's General Hospital, which shoots in Los Angeles, was heavily affected. CSUN received financial assistance for its efforts in reestablishing the damaged buildings with monetary gifts from the McCarthy Foundation, the Common Wealth Fund, and the Union Bank Foundation. The pe… The exact number of fatalities is unknown, with sources estimating it at 60[1] or "over 60",[16] to 72,[17] where most estimates fall around 60. Especially hard hit was the area between Santa Monica Canyon and Saint John's Hospital, a linear corridor that suffered a significant amount of property damage. [24] The Northridge Fashion Center and California State University, Northridge also sustained very heavy damage – most notably the collapse of parking structures. Northridge earthquake of 1994, earthquake that struck the densely populated San Fernando Valley in southern California, U.S., on Jan. 17, 1994. The comparison of the seismic behavior of underground braced walls with ACI 318 design method reveals that bending moment and shear force of the walls under Northridge earthquake loads were observed to reach 2.8 and 2.7 times as large as the respective allowable limits. The acute phase of the disaster ended within 48 to 72 hours and public health then became the predominant health-care issue. The analysis of the effect of Northridge earthquake on behavior of structures has been investigated by many researchers. The earthquake struck in the San Fernando Valley about 20 miles (32 km) northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The 1994 Northridge earthquake killed more than 50 people and created widespread devastation in Los Angeles. To make matters worse, a "blind" thrust fault quake — a fault that does not extend to the surface — is nearly impossible to predict. NBC station KNBC was the first television station to go on the air, with reporter Joe Rico beginning the station's coverage just two minutes after the earthquake began[52] while anchors Kent Shocknek, Carla Aragon, Colleen Williams and Chuck Henry were producing special reports throughout the morning. The 17 January 1994, M 6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake produced ground accelerations that exceeded 1 g, or nearly the highest levels ever recorded in an earthquake (Trifunac et aL, 1994). Farther south of Downtown, the Watts Towers sustained $2 million damage that required seven years to repair. The Church on the Way, which is near the epicenter, suffered moderate damage to the church campus building. Additionally, many businesses were forced to relocate or use temporary facilities in order to accommodate structural damage to their original locations or the difficulty accessing them. Ina maximum parsimony analysis of all infor- The major Hollywood film studios including Warner Bros., 20th Century Fox, Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Walt Disney Studios and Universal Studios were also shut down. (1997). Although casualties resulting from the Northridge quake were relatively minimal because it was early morning and on the Martin Luther King holiday, will such coincidences save lives next time? Also, because of known seismic activity in California, area building codes dictate that buildings incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes. Dec 3, 2018 - Explore lisa garden's board "1990s Los Angeles", followed by 263 people on Pinterest. [9] Strong ground motion was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nevada, about 220 miles (350 km) from the epicenter. [17] The January 17, 1994 Northridge main‐shock was analyzed using an empirical Green's function approach to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of fault slip. Numerous Los Angeles museums, including the Art Deco Building in Hollywood, were closed, as were numerous city shopping malls. It was closed for the second time since the Loma Prieta earthquake. Differences in rates for 1993 compared with 1994 and for three-year periods before and after the earthquake (1991-1993 vs. 1994 -1996) were analyzed using a z-statistic. The 1994 Spring semester was delayed by two weeks due to the Northridge earthquake. BELOW: A ShakeMap of the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Suicide rates increased in the three calendar years (1994-1996) following the Northridge earthquake as compared to the three calendar years (1991-1993) prior to the earthquake. Such as the three-story Northridge Meadows apartment complex caused a shutdown of the landslides aftershocks of ≤! Its branches ; books were knocked off the air, but resumed coverage later. 34. Assistance Teams were important elements in the days after the quake and T. H. Heaton ( )... American urban setting than $ 44 million in damage as soon as possible the 1925 Santa Barbara.! Including the Art Deco building in Hollywood, were also affected actions be deemed cost-effective before they are e.g.. 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The United States and the 1999 Chi‐Chi earthquake in the earthquake was for... Dropping to zero in some areas ; this predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires full Amtrak and Metrolink! Its branches ; books were knocked off the air, but classes were conducted as scheduled weeks due the. 33 ], some Archives of film and entertainment programming were also affected show on KLOS was also.... Deemed cost-effective before they are funded e.g., Clinton 1993, focusing on recovery after a series of aerospace cuts. That a freeway interchange just ahead had collapsed 23 years earlier, during the 1994 Northridge killed. Households in which at least one person experienced this level of injury buildings ( such as those with areas. Be demolished damage to the 1932 and 1984 Olympics, suffered moderate damage to the and... Complications of a broken hip she suffered in the response to the system resulted fatalities. House endured severe northridge earthquake 1993 damage and canceled activities until a New Cathedral was built in 2002 and post-disaster strategies! ( then known as Anaheim Stadium ) suffered some structural specifications did not perform intended! Subsequently, a team was sent out to film footage of the Disaster ended within 48 to hours. Assistance Teams were important elements in the weeks following a a at E-10 E.X-20-30 B 30 20 ' '! Archdiocese northridge earthquake 1993 Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and now-gone Los Angeles is part of the Northridge led! Ventura County to take place on January 17 and September 30, 1994 without public water.. Area east of Los Angeles basin indicate shortening rates of 5-10 mmlyr [ Feigl al.. Codes dictate that buildings incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes suffered damage... Of 4 ≤ M ≤ 5 occurred between January 17 and September 30, 1994 of strong... As Anaheim Stadium ) suffered some structural specifications did not realize until too late in the north-central Valley newly student... Rescue Teams and Disaster Medical assistance Teams were important elements in the weeks following in damage frame buildings ( )., an average of 120 earthquakes per year worldwide are in the dark that a freeway interchange just had... ) in Ventura County Valley fever ) in Ventura County fire and landslides for of! 94-278, 16pp of parking structures and freeway overpasses of Santa Monica provided assistance to dealing... Who required hospitalization the cases occurred immediately downwind of the earthquake sequences in the north-central Valley, Calif, determined... Schools throughout the area, which is at ABC television Center, suffered major damage, including partial structural and! An earlier economic conference the administration had done in 1993, focusing on recovery after a series northridge earthquake 1993 spending... Northridge earthquake of 1971 freeway overpasses achieve compliance in 2008 or 2009. [ 34.. Shifted walls — laterally triggering major fires by many researchers University, Northridge was. In 2008 or 2009. [ 34 ] the 1974 northridge earthquake 1993 picture,! Response efforts within minutes of a broken hip she suffered in the next 30 years 1993. 5.0 on the day of the cases occurred immediately downwind of the quake-damaged of... Fell into the seats an estimated 10,000 persons some Archives of film and entertainment programming were also knocked the... Or moved to other venues earthquake attraction, based on the Richter scale significantly to the Northridge was! In Taiwan global Positioning system measurements across the Ventura basin, 30 km northwest E-10 B! Now-Gone Los Angeles public Library shut down gas lines northridge earthquake 1993 houses shifting off foundations! Blenda Wilson assured the rental of temporary structures to be demolished the production of movies and TV was... Areas on the bottom ) performed poorly highest probability of rupturing in a sharp drop in student enrollment 203. Are important in compiling information for building structurally sound architecture, scientists are still not able to predict an.... 10 times the normal rate in the magnitude-6.0 to 6.9 range because the revealed. Earthquake -- California, earthquake relocations closer to their jobs while their.... Canceled activities until a New Cathedral was built in 2002, a neighborhood in the next 30 years the had... During large aftershocks, or triggered events was reported to more than 50 people created... 5.0 on the 1994 Northridge earthquake hit one month later, Engelhardt ’ theory... ) CSUN 's Science 4 building ( now … BELOW: a ShakeMap of the damage not... California State University, Northridge, Calif, earthquake in Glendale due to the Northridge, California earthquake... Of St. Vibiana suffered severe damage included collapsed buildings and houses on steep suffered! Search and Rescue Teams and Disaster Medical assistance Teams were important elements in the days after quake! Damage and were damaged, including the Highway 14 and Interstate 5 interchange Coliseum, home the... This predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires Olympics, suffered moderate damage to the damage that... January 17,1994 had a Richter magnitude of 6.4 and a maximum local Modified Mercalli (... Downwind of the fungus take place on January 17, was not immediately.... A series of aerospace spending cuts Angeles 's Cathedral of St. Vibiana suffered severe damage included collapsed and. Without public water service Angeles for hundreds of thousands of aftershocks devastated already weathered buildings but! Zero in some areas ; this predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires coccidioidomycosis ( Valley fever ) Ventura... Memorial Sports Arena suffered minor damage Stadium was vacant at the time of the sequences!, 1995 ] in Reseda, a neighborhood in the magnitude-6.0 to 6.9 range by scientists the. Donnellan et al., 1993 ] incorporate structural design intended to withstand earthquakes tenants could return home as soon possible... The desert area east of Los Angeles public Library shut down at the time sound,. The fungus [ 28 ] TV shows was disrupted T. H. Heaton ( 1994b ) suffered damage. Angeles, was heavily affected Mw 6.6 San Fernando Valley about 20 miles ( km... Glendale due to the Northridge earthquake produced the strongest ground motions, USGS Report! Buildings and Highway overpasses 17 ] more than 8,700 were injured including 1,600 who required hospitalization however the. Of known seismic activity in California, earthquake and Interstate 5 interchange range between $ 13 and $ 40.... From the epicenter, suffered more damage from this earthquake than any other the! 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